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27 mai 2007 7 27 /05 /mai /2007 08:49
Forte croissance du nombre de salariés des Entreprises finlandaises à l'étranger en 10 ans. Une croissance de 150% entre 1996 et 2005, de 137 000 à 350 000 employés selon les statistiques de la Banque de Finlande.
La principale motivation de cette externalisation ou délocalisation de la production n'est pas l'attrait des pays à bas coût de production qui a une incidence forte sur les importations de la Finlande. 
Cette externalisation résulte d'une volonté de se rapprocher des marchés extérieurs afin de rendre plus acceptable la diffusion de produits d'origine finlandaise (notamment en Suède, aux Etats-Unis et dans les pays européens).

Rapid growth in ten years:
Finnish companies have 350,000 employees outside of Finland


Helsinki
Sweden 68,217
United States 37,477
Germany 33,716
China 21,490
Estonia 16,446
Russia 15,487
United Kingdom 15,076
Netherlands 14,308
France 14,099
Norway 13,778
Hungary 9,797
Poland 8,543
Italy 6,515
Denmark 6,437
Brazil 6,224
Austria 5,639
Canada 5,328
India 4,874
Lithuania 4,483
Mexico 3,656


Of the table

(27.05.2007 - Juhani Artto) In ten years, the number of employees in Finnish companies outside of Finland has grown rapidly. According to the Bank of Finland statistics (1), in 1996 there were 137,000 employees in the foreign subsidiaries and branches of companies resident in Finland. By 2005 the number had jumped by 150 per cent, to 351,000.

The top 50 list of Finnish companies (their global number of employees as the criteria) published by the economic weekly Talouselämä (2) contains data on the provision of their personnel working abroad. The list concerns the average situation in 2006.

Of the Finnish companies that were significant employers outside of
Finland one may form five, roughly equally large groups. They were as follows.

1. Nokia and its subcontractors

Changes, connected with the rise of Nokia which went on to become the world
's number one mobile telephone producer, play an important but not a decisive role in the growth of personnel abroad. Last year, Nokia's global personnel totalled 65,300 employees. Over 41,100 of them worked outside of Finland.

In 2006, Nokia
'
s three major Finnish based subcontractors Elcoteq, Perlos and Salcomp had 29,100 employees in their foreign units and subsidiaries. In Finland they had no more than 2,500 employees, which represented only a fraction of their domestic personnel just a few years ago.

And so Nokia with its Finnish based subcontractors represented approximately a fifth of the Finnish companies
'
personnel working outside of Finland.

2. Forest industry

Another fifth was formed by the forest industry giants Stora Enso,
UPM-Kymmene and Metsäliitto, all three having their main offices in Finland. In 2006, they had in their foreign units 67,400 employees. A fourth company Ahlström (specialty papers) may be added to this second group. In 2006, Ahlström had 4,900 employees outside of Finland.

3.Mechanical engineering

The third fifth can be identified in the mechanical engineering industry.
There, Kone (elevators), Metso (paper machines, mineral processing
equipments), Wärtsilä (diesel engines), Konecranes (cranes) and Cargotec (cargo handling solutions) had 65,000 employees in their branches and subsidiaries abroad.

4. Other manufacturing industries

A mixture of other manufacturing companies sums up the fourth group. Last year following ten companies, all based in Finland, had altogether 64,800 employees abroad: Huhtamäki (packaging), Fazer (bakery products, confectionery), Kemira (chemicals), Amer Sports (sports equipments), Atria (food), Fortum (power generation and distribution), Rautaruukki (steel), Outokumpu (stainless steel), Luvata (copper products) and Consolis (prefabricated concrete products).

5. Services, consulting, retailing

The remaining fifth covered various service providers, such as the construction industry companies YIT and Lemminkäinen, SanomaWSOY (media), Tieto-Enator (IT service provider), retailers Kesko, Stockmann and SOK, Sampo (insurance business), Eltel Networks (design, construction and maintenance of electrical and telecommunications networks) and Pöyry, the world
'
s leading forest industry consulting firm.
According to Talouselämä, in 2006, these ten companies had 63,600 employees in their foreign subsidiaries and branches.

Low labour costs have not been the most important factor

The motivation to expand personnel abroad has varied. In many businesses it is not possible to compete without having production units in several countries or on several continents. It means having production near the major markets and utilising strengths of different countries.

The Finnish trade union movement has mostly focused on cases where jobs have been removed from Finland to low pay countries. However, in most cases concerning Finnish investment abroad lower labour costs have not been among the major motives.

This can be concluded from Bank of Finland statistics (1) on the number of employees for foreign subsidiaries and branches of companies resident in Finland by country. The table below presents the top 20 countries in 2005. 's low pay countries, China has attracted direct investment from Finland primarily because of its vast and rapidly expanding markets.

Estonia's case is different from China. To some degree, direct investments in Estonia have been made to avail or take advantage of its low labour costs. This was the motivation, for example, of Nokia
's subcontractor Elcoteq which has been for many years been Estonia'
s largest exporter. In part has Finnish expansion into Estonia been motivated by Estonian markets.

Direct investments in Russia, have primarily been motivated by Russian
markets. The vast forest resources have also attracted Finnish capital. Only in a few minor cases have Russia
'
s low labour costs been the decisive factor in Finnish investment in Russia.

Hungary became the favourite country of Nokia and a few
other Finnish companies several years ago for their productive investments in Central and Eastern Europe. Low labour costs and social stability were Hungary
'
s assets among the former socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

Direct investments in Poland have been motivated both by Poland
's domestic markets and its low labour costs.

In Latin America, Brazil has long time been the base of Finnish companies. There, Kone, Stora Enso and Nokia belong to the most important Finnish employers. The speciality has been Pöyry
'
s sizeable office that consults forest industries in the region.

The elevator company Kone and diesel engine manufacturer Wärtsilä have already seen many years of production in India. The units have targeted both India
'
s and larger Asian markets. Recently Nokia opened its first mobile telephone factory in India, followed by its major subcontractors. They produce primarily for the rapidly expanding Indian market.

Direct investments in Mexico include both Nokia
'
s and its subcontractors' factories. In these investments, the low pay factor plays a role.

All in all, the low pay level of developing countries and of countries in transition is more reflected in Finnish imports than in employment figures of Finnish companies
' foreign subsidiaries and branches. In this, textile, garment and shoe industries offer the best example. In the last three decades they have lost tens of thousands of jobs as a result of the low labour cost countries' better competitive ability. That is verified in the Finnish import statistics, not in the number of employees Finnish companies have abroad.

Major sources:
(excel)

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